Explore the application of water-saving irrigation technology in campus gardens
With the development of society, the population of developing countries has increased dramatically, and water resources are seriously in short supply. Traditional ground flooding irrigation can't meet the requirements of lawn irrigation, so it is necessary to adopt efficient irrigation methods. This paper mainly starts with the application of water-saving irrigation technology and water conservation in campus gardens, introduces the characteristics of lawn sprinkler irrigation technology and the composition of sprinkler irrigation system, and discusses the possible problems of sprinkler irrigation technology.
Water is the source of life, the root of all development, and it is inconceivable that the world would be like if there were a large shortage of water. Water is a very important thing for us, precious, and indispensable for our survival. However, at present, our country is in a state of severe shortage of water resources, even more scarce than arable land resources. China's per capita water resources account for only 28% of the world average, and it has almost been judged to be one of the thirteen countries with the poorest per capita water resources in the world. Conserving water is therefore a very important task. Agriculture not only to save water, usually we also have to save water, a school seems to be a small collective, but also a large household with water, this article from the school campus garden aspect of water-saving irrigation, mainly about the application of lawn sprinkler irrigation technology, in order to achieve a certain degree of water conservation, to save water resources to contribute a little bit of meager power.
1 Reasons why water-saving irrigation techniques are not widely used on campus
Nowadays, many schools, trees and lawns are almost all irrigated with traditional irrigation, such as ground flood irrigation. This kind of irrigation refers to letting it flow on the ground during irrigation, and infiltrating the soil by gravity, which is a relatively extensive irrigation method. And this irrigation will cause a part of the water to flow out of the flower bed and into the underground waterway to slip away, which not only wastes a lot of water, but also does not achieve the best effect of watering. In fact, after the water is sent to the flower bed, how to water it is very knowledgeable. But now the tree maintenance personnel hired in the school are almost all some migrant workers, basically no special training, the maintenance of trees is not a complete concept, that the watering of trees is like the irrigation of their own home planting, as long as enough watering, not dry on the line, do not consider whether a lot of water is wasted. So follow the traditional method of thousands of years, take a large flood of water, when watering trees, the entire flower bed is vigorously filled with water. If the ground is uneven, high and low, if the plot is flooded with water, the amount of water used will be greater. In fact, the purpose of watering the ground is to allow the roots of trees and flowers and grass to obtain and maintain the necessary amount of water, and it is completely unnecessary to water the rest of the place, and it is a huge waste to water deeply. In fact, watering trees and flowers and grass is the same as other crops, the amount of irrigation, the number of irrigation and the time should be determined according to the water demand characteristics of plants, growth stage, climate, soil conditions, timely, appropriate and reasonable irrigation.
Perhaps considering the cost of equipment, now watering is almost directly connected to a long water hose on the faucet, the watering personnel will directly put the water hose in the ground, let the water hose release water, and after a period of time, it will be moved to other places to water in the same way. This kind of watering is not only not very effective, but also watering costs manpower and wastes water. Although this method of plant watering is less investment in the early stage, the investment in the later stage will be a lot, which I think is a practice that is not worth the loss. In response to this problem, we can think of it in another way, just like water conservancy projects, building a water conservancy project costs a lot of money and time, the initial investment is larger, but the later income is continuous, and the later operation investment is also quite small, and the impact on the environment is much smaller than thermal power generation, why not enjoy it? The way plants are watered on campus, we can also change the traditional way and adopt new irrigation technologies, which not only save money, but also save a lot of water resources.
2 Characteristics of lawn sprinkler irrigation technology
Sprinkler irrigation is an advanced irrigation technique in which water is sent by hose to a sprinkler head located in a field to spray it, and the crops are irrigated. It is a simulation of natural rainfall, similar to artificial rainfall, and is an important measure to ensure that the water needed for lawn growth is met. Sprinkler irrigation and micro-irrigation are widely used in modern garden lawn irrigation. It's just that it's less used on campus. Lawn sprinkler irrigation technology is based on the advantages of water saving, labor saving, energy saving and high irrigation quality, which is widely used and gradually recognized and recognized by people. Now, not only a large number of lawn construction in the municipal garden, the school campus is also planted a lot of pieces of lawn, green area accounted for more than 25%, due to various reasons, the tension of water resources is increasingly prominent, the traditional ground flood irrigation has not reached the requirements of modern lawn irrigation, the need to take efficient irrigation methods, lawn sprinkler irrigation than the flood irrigation to save 30% to 50% of the water, in order to alleviate the situation of water shortage.
In order to improve the environment, cultivate temperament, increase beauty and other purposes and planted lawns, of course, I hope that they are best to grow all year round, green grass all year round, and do not need to be planted every year, just prune. In addition, planted a large number of lawns, will inevitably make the soil water infiltration rate reduced, the use of flood irrigation, will lose a lot of water, therefore, the use of sprinkler irrigation technology irrigation, each time a small amount of water irrigation, the number of irrigation increased, in order to achieve the lawn can fully absorb the required water. Sprinkler irrigation during the day, due to sunshine and other reasons, evaporation loss is larger, so lawn sprinkler irrigation is generally selected at night, and sprinkler irrigation almost all use automated systems, and do not need to wait there for irrigation, saving labor and resources, and improving the quality of irrigation. The lawn irrigation system not only meets the requirements of lawn water, but also considers the landscape and environmental effects. After a well-designed sprinkler irrigation system, the arrangement of sprinkler heads and spray points not only meets the water demand of the lawn, but also forms a new hydrodynamic landscape picture in the irrigation process, which is beautiful.
3 Composition of the sprinkler irrigation system
Water sources, head hubs, hose networks and sprinklers are part of a complete irrigation system.
3.1 Water sources
School campuses are generally urban water supply as a sprinkler irrigation source, of course, if there are other water sources, such as lake water, river water can also be used for irrigation, as long as the growth of lawns can be guaranteed.
3.2 First Hub
The first hub generally includes power equipment, water pumps, filters, fertilizer applicators, pressure relief valves, check valves, water meters, pressure gauges and control equipment. Its role is mainly to draw water from the water source, and to pressurize the water, water quality treatment, fertilizer injection and system control. If the urban water supply is adopted, the pressurization equipment can be omitted, and a special water pumping station can be established where there is a need for pressurization. If the lake water is used for irrigation, a pressurization device must be set up to pump the lake water into the water hose and then irrigate.
3.3 hose networks
hoses need to be laid in the lawn, which mainly transports and distributes pressure water to each lawn planting area that needs to be irrigated. According to the requirements of the design, the hoses of different particle sizes are used to lay down to form a complete sprinkler irrigation hose network system to meet the irrigation requirements of the lawn. The setting of the hose network should be reasonable and correct, and try to meet the needs of plant growth.
The role of the sprinkler head is like rainfall, dispersing the water into water droplets and evenly scattering in the lawn, so that the lawn can fully absorb the required water. At any time, it is necessary to check whether the sprinkler head is blocked, which affects the irrigation effect.
4 Application of lawn sprinkler irrigation technology in campus
At present, many municipal gardens and agriculture have adopted sprinkler irrigation technology and have been widely used, but the application in campus gardens is still in its infancy. In a college, there is a whole lawn of nearly several hundred square meters on the campus, which used to be irrigating by workers one after another, which not only wasted manpower and labor, but also wasted a lot of water resources, considering the economic benefits and water-saving benefits of lawn sprinkler irrigation, and designed sprinkler irrigation facilities. According to the design scheme, arrange the hoses in the lawn and select the appropriate sprinkler head. After the installation and commissioning of the sprinkler irrigation system in the lawn, the sprinkler effect is better. When irrigating in the morning or evening, like a fountain, you can see many students stopping there, admiring this beautiful scene and taking photos. The construction and use of this facility not only adds to the atmosphere on campus, but also provides a place for agricultural and hydraulic engineering students to practice, so that they have an intuitive feeling of sprinkler irrigation technology, and then have a preliminary understanding of other irrigation technologies. The large-area green area adopts automatic sprinkler irrigation system, giving full play to its advantages of water saving, energy saving, labor saving and high irrigation quality.
5 Problems with lawn sprinkler irrigation technology
The possible problems of lawn sprinkler irrigation mainly include the rationality of the design, the correctness of material selection, the standardization of construction and the scientificity of post-management. Unreasonable design not only can not achieve the purpose of energy saving and water saving, but also increase the investment of funds, can not achieve the expected irrigation effect. Uneven sprinkling is a prominent problem in lawn irrigation. When sprinkling lawns, we all hope that all grasses will be treated equally, can spray water uniformly, and can get the water they need, without some places having more places and some places less, resulting in unnecessary waste. However, it is very difficult to do in practice, and may only be able to do it when it rains. First of all, the number of installed sprinklers is limited, the scope of the 360 ° rotating nozzle is a certain radius of the circle range, is also limited, in this circle range, generally closer to the center, may have more water, and farther away from the place, the amount of water gradually reduced, how to make the sprinkling water of the entire lawn is uniform? There is also a sprinkler is a connection hose, the water pressure in the hose is large and small, but also will make the flow of each nozzle different, how to reduce this unevenness caused by different pressures? These issues will remain to be resolved. The arrangement of the sprinkler irrigation sprinkler is too arbitrary, some places may be too much sprinkler arrangement, some places are arranged too little, in the irrigation process, it is possible that this place is irrigated more, the area is less irrigation, which is for the plant, the irrigation grows well and fast, and the irrigation less grows slowly, making the whole lawn look uneven, affecting the aesthetic effect, it will also bring some unnecessary difficulties to the mowing lawn, and even some sprinklers will find that some sprinklers have sprayed water out of the lawn, sprinkled on the road and cement ground, Water resources are wasted.
The laying of the sprinkler irrigation hose network is unreasonable, and the installation of sprinkler irrigation facilities is unreasonable, which is mainly a construction problem. During the installation process, the installation is not tight enough, resulting in serious leakage. Later maintenance is not fully in place, resulting in sprinklers and hoses may be blocked or destroyed for a variety of reasons, so that the system can not work properly.
Whether irrigation technology can achieve the target requirements of uniform irrigation, meeting the needs of lawn growth, energy saving and water saving, it depends on the overall effect of the sprinkler irrigation system, not only to have the correct design, but also to standardize the construction and the scientific management. Although the use of lawn sprinkler irrigation technology in campus gardens is not very extensive, with the improvement of everyone's quality of life and the gradual strengthening of water conservation awareness, lawn sprinkler irrigation technology will be vigorously promoted and used in the near future. Do not over-water when watering crops, and do not over-water when irrigating lawns, and make scientific use of water resources to achieve the purpose of saving water resources. Our country is a country with poor per capita water resources, for the sake of our children and grandchildren, in order to have a good environment and a better life in the future, let us always have the awareness of saving water, can really save water, do not let the last drop of water become your tears.